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Afganistàn: ¿ “Escindido” o “desgarrado”?


Huntington escribe: “Casi todos los países son heterogéneos por cuanto incluyen dos o màs grupos étnicos,raciales y religiosos.Muchos países están divididos ya que las diferencias y conflictos entre tales grupos desempeñan un papel importante en la política del país”.

Respecto a la civilización que integra ( Cristiana o Islàmica),distingue entre países “escindidos” y países “desgarrados.

En un país ESCINDIDO,coexisten grandes grupos pertenecientes a civilizaciones diferentes.Fue el caso de Yugoslavia,hasta la muerte del mariscal Tito.

Surjen divisiones profundas y un grupo mayoritario de una civilización intenta definir el Estado “como su instrumento político y convertir su lengua,religión y símbolos en los del Estado.

La proximidad geográfica,aun en el caso de países diferentes,puede facilitar el fenómeno de escisión. Es el caso de Timor Oriental e Indonesia.Èste pretende imponer su civilización islámica sobre Timor,un país miembro de la civilización cristiana.

Un país DESGARRADO tiene una única cultura predominante que lo situa dentro de una civilización,pero sus líderes pretenden desplazarlo a otra civilización distinta. En el caso de Afganistàn,el desgarro  fue provocado por  extranjeros ocupantes.Pretendieron democratizarlo,modernizarlo y occidentalizarlo,sin lograrlo.

Pero dentro de un país perteneciente a una misma civilización pueden ocurrir quiebres y el caso de Afganistàn tambièn es digno de mención.

Aunque estè dentro de una sola civilización ( la musulmana),el movimiento Talibàn causò una notoria división ,al introducir la doctrina WAHHABI,la màs radical del Islam.Escindió a los sunnies y puede dar a los Pashtun la supremacía sobre las demás etnias.(Eso no es nuevo.Jamal al afgani introdujo y predicò el wahhabismo en el siglo XIX).

Si toman el dominio de Afganistàn luego del 2014,los Taliban podrán difundir esa doctrina en toda Asia Central y se producirá otro quiebre,al practicarse en esa región un islam mucho màs tolerante que el wahabismo.Cv.Mv.

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