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BUSHKASHI,el deporte nacional afgano



EL bushkashi es el deporte nacional afgano.Lo juegan dos equipos, a caballo, sin una cantidad predeterminada de miembros. A veces,entre ambos suman unos trescientos jinetes. En Maimana[1] se juega todos los viernes,en la explanada ubicadad a la derecha del puente de la salida Este de la ciudad.

En el medio del campo de juego se pone una cabra a la que han descabezado,le han cortado las patas a la altura de las rodillas y le han sacado las entrañas.(Una cabra cuesta alrdedeor de 200 dólares,asi que el juego no es para pobres [2]).Cada jugador trata de tomar la cabra,cargarla y salir al galope hacia uno de los costados del campo de juego,donde hay plantada una bandera de color rojo.Al llegar alli retroceden al mediocampo e intentan depositar la cabra en el punto central de la cancha.Si lo consiguen,el equipo se anota un tanto.El juego se desarrolla entre una inmensa nube de polvo, un gran revoltijo de jinetes forcejeando la tenencia de la cabra, con un galope vertiginoso ,con innumerables caídas de jugadores. Asombra la habilidad de los jinetes y el entrenamiento de los equinos.

Traducido literalmente,”bushkashi” significa “la matanza de la cabra”.Como dicen las leyendas y tradiciones de esa tierra,se practica desde tiempos remotos.Los turcos y otras razas que llegaron a las llanuras del norte afgano domesticaron el caballo y lo usaron como máquina de guerra y medio de transporte. Actualmente se usan dos tipos de caballos: el “ qataghau”,un caballo tipo pony muy fornido y otro más grande,más común en las estepas de Faryab.[3]Ambos se usan en este deporte,pero tan solo los machos,no las yeguas.

El caballo tiene un entrenamiemto especial.Si el jinete cae o es desmontado, el animal permanece inmóvil mientras el hombre se levanta ( sin exagerar,da la impresión que el equino parece mas inteligente que el jinete) .El precio de un caballo entrenado puede variar desde 20 000 afganis hasta 100 000 afganis ( de 400 a 2000 dólares).La práctica de este deporte ocasiona muchos gastos.Uno de ellos es el pago de los entrenadores y el otro es la atención de los invitados a un partido,ya que el organizador es responsible de proveer alojamiento y comida a todo los participantes. Si para un partido se reúnen 300 jinetes, puede el lector hacerse una idea del gasto!!!!.

El caballo se alimenta con avena, a intervalos regulares.En los dias previos al partido lo obligan a pasar un poco de hambre y recorrer apreciables distancias con la finalidad de alivianarlo; de lo contrario se corre el riesgo de reventar el caballo en un esfuerzo desmedido.Se caracterizan por el color de su pelo:El caballo gris es llamado “taragh”, el colorado “samand” y el tordillo “quesel” o “buz”.

Como imitacion de antiguas batallas, durante el desarrollo del partido hay una lucha mano a mano por la posesión de la cabra.Las reglas del juego no están escritas y se trasmiten oralmente desde varias generaciones atrás.

Hay puntual y exacto respeto a las normas.Nadie puede atar la cabra a su montura. Desmontar un oponente o golpearlo es considerado muy mala práctica deportiva.Los habitantes de Faryab se cuentan entre los mejores jugadores.El juego se practica entre Noviembre y Marzo por ser las estaciones frescas y se disputan partidos en ocasiones especiales como bodas,la fiesta de terminacion del Ramadán y para celebrar el Año Nuevo.Como premio,los ganadores reciben “chapanes” (una especie de capa),turbantes o dineros.Los jugadores visten el “chapan” (una especie de capa) y pequeños turbantes,aunque algunos lucen un gorro especial.A los jugadores mas destacados se les da el titulo de “chapandaz” o “gran chapandaz”.


[1] Ciudad del Norte de Afganistán,Capital de la Provincia de Faryab

[2] Un afgano vive con dos dólares diarios

[3] La Provincia de Faryab tiene frontera con TURKMENISTÁN

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65 respuestas a “BUSHKASHI,el deporte nacional afgano”
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